There are many career opportunities in the healthcare industry and they provide long-term job stability which is rewarding both at a personal and professional level. If you value helping and caring for people, and like working as part of a team to bring the best of healthcare services to patients, then a career in healthcare could be what you are looking for.

The institutions in Malaysia offer healthcare courses at diploma, bachelor and postgraduate levels. Explore what these courses have to offer below:



  • Careers in healthcare industry are many. It involves people in many different professios. These include doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians, pharmacists, radiographers and the list goes on. An ever increasing population means that the demand healthcare professionals will continue to rise.

1. Doctor (General Practitioner)

  • Doctor (General Practitioner)
    - Listens to patients' symptoms and forms a picture of the possible problems.
    - Observes and examines patients before making a diagnosis.
    - Conduct physical examination on patients.
    - Uses equipment like blood pressure monitors and stethoscopes in diagnosis and therapy
    - Advises patients regarding diet, exercise, weight control, pregnancy, etc.
    - Prescribes and administers medicines and other medical treatments.
    - Carries out minor surgeries and when necessary, arranges for X-ray examinations, special tests, consultations with specialists or hospital care.
    - Checks patients for insurance and employment purposes.
    - Signs death certificates.
    - Does house calls when necessary.
    - May be required to teach, carry out research and administrative duties for the department or hospital.
    - Keep abreast with latest medical information, procedures and treatment.
    - Can go into private practice after service bond with the government.
    - May work as a resident medical officer in private hospitals, an occupational medical consultant in industrial companies or a medical director in pharmaceutical firms.
    - May specialise in paediatrics, psychiatry, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, anaesthetics, cardiology, neurology, orthopaedics, etc

    How to become a Doctor videos:

    Medical Careers: How to Become a Doctor in the USA

    How to Get Medical Jobs : How to Become a General Practitioner Daily life of a doctor

    BECOME A DOCTOR, DEMYSTIFIED. Daily Life as a Medical Doctor Jobs scope of a doctor

    Medical Interview Preparation - Duties of a Doctor

2. Dentist

  • - Diagnose and treats diseases and disorders of the teeth and gums using dental tools and x-rays.
    - Three main areas of duties are:
    (i) Preventing oral diseases
    (ii) Restoring an individual's appearance
    (iii) Detecting and treating oral cancers and jaw fractures

    - Restores and removes diseased teeth by placing fillings or performing extraction and root canal treatment.
    - Educates the public on how to take good care of their teeth and how to maintain good oral hygiene.
    - Advises patients on proper and regular brushing and flossing, proper diets and regular dental care.
    - Educates patients on the care and prevention of gum diseases.
    - Improves an individual's appearance by bleaching, crowning or capping teeth, through orthodontic treatment, jaw surgery, braces or by providing dentures.
    - Provide pain relief to patients.
    - Detects and treats cancers in and around the mouth.
    - Services may be required in accident cases to treat mouth and face injuries, including broken jaws.
    - Helps identify murder or plane crash victims where victims are beyond recognition.
    - Carry out administrative work such as maintaining dental records; and training and recruitment of staff.
    - Manage stock and equipment.
    - Market services to potential clients.
    - Keep abreast with new developments.
    - Can choose to be a dental private practitioner, a dental officer in the government dental service or a lecturer and researcher in a university.

    Dentist Jobs :Education Needed to Become a Dentist in the USA

    Daily Life of a Dentist in the USA

    Dentist Career Information : Dentist Job Description

3. Optometrist

  • - Examines eyes and tests eyesight to diagnose vision problems or eye diseases.
    - Prescribes spectacles, contact lenses or other aids to correct or improve vision.
    - Detects eye diseases like cataracts and conditions like diabetes and refers patients to ophthalmologists (eye specialists).
    - Diagnose, treat and manage diseases or disorders related to the eye.
    - Prescribe medication for diseases such as conjunctivitis.
    - Advise patients on eye exercise and ocular products.
    - Advises patients on the selection of spectacle frames and lenses and does minor adjustments before clients collect them.
    - Keep abreast with new developments.
    - Conduct talks or speak at conferences.
    - Dispensing opticians interpret prescriptions from optometrists and ophthalmologists (eye specialists) for optical appliances (glasses or contact lenses), select frame and lens systems, and fit and assemble those appliances.

    How to become an Optometrist in the USA

    A Day in the Life – Optometrist

4. Radiographer

  • Supplies information obtained through the use of X- rays and other forms of radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
    May specialise as a:

    1. Diagnostic Radiographer

    - Obtains diagnostic radiographs to reveal or exclude illnesses or injuries.
    - Assists radiologists (specialist medical doctors) in fluoroscopy procedures for examination of the gullets, stomachs and intestines.
    - Needs to operate expensive and sophisticated equipment.
    - Ensures patients are exposed to the least amount of radiation possible.
    - May have to attend to patients in wards and operating theatres.
    - Usually works in shifts.

    2 Therapeutic Radiographer

    - Accurately delivers the prescribed dose of radiation as determined by a radiologist.
    - Works mainly in the treatment of diseases like cancers.
    - Responsible for the careful positioning of patients, X-ray beams and application of radiation doses.
    - Makes careful calculations and measurements to determine how radiation is to be administered.
    - Communicates with patients undergoing radiotherapies via the intercom and closed circuit television.
    - Counsels and advises patients on how to cope with the side effects of therapies.
    - Usually works during office hours as patients are scheduled for treatments by appointments.

    Radiology : How to Become a Radiology Technician the USA

    Job Scope of a Radiographer

    Radiographer Student - Career Information 2 in the USA

    A Day in the Life - Radiological Technician

    Radiographer CT - Career Information

5. Physiotherapist

  • - Rehabilitates people who suffer from injuries or disabilities.
    - Work with patients to identify problem areas.
    - Treats patients with pain and stiffness in bones, joints, ligaments, tendons or muscles and those with nervous systems' disorders.
    - Uses special techniques to help people with temporary or permanent disabilities to live normal and active lives.
    - May use heat, cold water, soft tissue manipulation, medical application of electricity, movements or exercises in treatments.
    - Work may involve lifting and supporting patients and exercising the limbs of those who are unable to move.
    - Educate patients and their caregivers on how to improve their condition and/or prevent further injury.
    - Develop and review treatment programmes.
    - Supervise physiotherapy assistants and students.
    - Keep abreast with new techniques and technology.

    How to become a Physiotherapist

    Job Description of a Physical Therapist

    Job Scope of a physiotherapist

6. Speech Therapist

  • - Helps patients overcome communication disorders. - Diagnoses and treats disorders and dysfunctions of voice, speech and language. - May treat swallowing disorders. - Finds reasons for disorders and designs treatment plans. - Treats children and adults suffering from physical disorders which affect speech and speech defects caused by diseases, accidents or psychological traumas.

    How to become a Speech Therapist in the USA

    Job Scope of a Speech Therapist

    Daily life of a speech therapist

7. Dietician/Nutritionist

  • - Plans health diets and diet counselling.
    - Plans nutritionally balanced meals for patients to facilitate recovery.
    - Provide nutritional counselling to patients individually.
    - Provide nutritional counselling to groups undergoing a specific treatment plan.
    - Applies principles derived from knowledge of food, nutrition, biochemistry, management, behavioural and social sciences.
    - Plans special diets for patients in the hospital and liaises with the catering department for their preparation.
    - Develop nutritional programmes for specific target groups such as diabetic patients.
    - Advises on the nutritional component for programmes on eating disorders.
    - May work in outpatient clinics, old folks’ homes, slimming centres and health centres.
    - Advises consumer organisations, food industries, governments and schools on food policies.
    - May work as an administrative or management dietician where one oversees large-scale meal planning and preparation for company cafeterias, prisons and schools.
    - Supervises preparation of diets in kitchen and ensures that foods are served in conformity with individual dietary prescriptions.
    - Confers with superiors and medical staff regarding dietary or nutritional problems of individual patients.
    - Visits patients to ascertain their reactions to food received and inquire as to any food intolerance they may have.
    - Checks appearance of food on tray, and manner and amount of food served.
    - Conduct education programmes on basic nutrition.
    - Develop and maintain educational materials on nutritional topics to be used by clinicians.
    - Budgets for and purchases food, equipment and supplies.
    - Enforces sanitary and safety regulations.
    - Prepares records and reports.

    How to become a Dietician/nutritionist

    Job Scope of a Dietician/nutritionist

    Daily Life of a Dietician/nutritionist

8. Pharmacist

  • - Prepares, mixes and dispenses prescribed medicines. - Advises patients and caregivers about the patients’ medication and medical conditions, and help ensure they know how to take their medication properly. - Monitor and analyze the health of the patient, with respect to the drugs that have been given to the patient. - Advises and assists doctors or surgeons in matters relating to dosages and prescriptions to the patient. - Answers the queries of the patients about the probable side effects and benefits of the drug therapy. - Seek immediate help from the doctor in case the drug shows some side effects on the patient. - Recommend over-the-counter drugs to patients with minor ailments. - Counsels patients on compliance in taking their medication. - Prepares records and reports. - Supervise junior pharmacists and dispensers. - Monitor the stock of medication and its proper handling and storage.

    How to become a Dietician/nutritionist

    How to become a Pharmacist in the USA

    Job Scope of a Pharmacist

9. Clinical Psychologist

  • - Assesses the emotional and lifestyle problems of clients.
    - Records and analyses clients’ medical, social and family histories.
    - Studies how the feelings, actions, beliefs, experiences and culture of people interact to shape their experiences.
    - Applies therapy to a broad range of clients which include children, adults, couples, families and communities.
    - Conducts psychometric and neuropsychological tests to identify problems, and measure clients’ skills and abilities.
    - Discusses the treatment options of their problems with clients.
    - Develops individual treatment plans to address psychological difficulties and issues, and/or treatment of mental illness.
    - Monitors and evaluates the effects of administered treatment.
    - Conducts research and keeps up to date with research in the field.
    - Develops programmes for group therapy with social skills, anger-management or assertiveness training.
    - Maintains records and writes evaluation reports when requested.

10. Acupuncturist

  • - Treats patients using traditional Chinese therapies including needle acupuncture.
    - Consults with patients about their health or injuries.
    - Examines patients and makes diagnoses using the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, tongue observation and by checking the pulse.
    - Discusses treatment options with patients.
    - Performs acupuncture on the body.
    - Prescribes herbal medicines to treat patients.
    - Complements treatment with tuina (massage), moxibustion (heat), cupping (suction), exercise therapy and laser therapy.
    - Refers patients to other health services when necessary. - Keeps patient records.

11. Anaesthetist

  • - Uses anaesthetics to make patients free of pain during and after surgical procedures.
    - Assesses the patient’s medical status and how that might affect the anaesthetic used.
    - Assesses the patient’s pain management requirements before surgical operations.
    - Discusses with other medical specialists the treatments and procedures before, during and after an operation.
    - Explains the anaesthetic process to the patient.
    - Decides on the anaesthetic drugs and techniques to be used before, during and after an operation.
    - Administers local and general anaesthetics to patients.
    - Continually monitors the patient’s vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and breathing during surgery.
    - Observes and cares for the patient before, during and after their operation and undertakes measures to counteract adverse reactions or complications.
    - Records details of drugs given.
    - Resuscitates critically ill people such as trauma victims.
    - Teaches medical staff and students about anaesthetics.
    - Carries out research on new drugs and treatments.

    How to become an Acupuncturist

11. Audiologist

  • - Treats hearing, balance, and related ear problems.
    - Studies, identifies and measures hearing problems.
    - Uses various types of testing equipment to measure patients’ ability to hear and distinguish between sounds.
    - Uses computers to evaluate and diagnose balance disorders.
    - Analyzes test and patients data to make a diagnosis and determine a course of treatment.
    - Prescribes, selects and fits hearing aids.
    - Educates and advises people on looking after their hearing.
    - Helps patients with rehabilitation after an accident or condition that caused hearing loss.
    - Conduct research.
    - Conduct assessments of workplace and classroom sound levels.

12. Obstetrician & Gynaecologist

  • - Obstetricians have specialized training in pregnancy management, prenatal care, labour, and pueperium.
    - Gynaecologists are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders related to the female reproductive system.
    - Gives medical treatment and advice related to the female reproductive system, and care for women during pregnancy and childbirth.
    - Identifies and treats problems of the female reproductive system such as infertility and bladder problems.
    - Advises on the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
    - Conducts Pap test screening and identifies sexually transmitted diseases.
    - Consults and treat patients with abnormal cervical smears and heavy menstrual bleeding.
    - Checks for and treat ovarian cysts and check for cancer of the female reproductive tract.
    - Performs surgery when necessary.
    - Examines and care for pregnant women.
    - Delivers babies.
    - Checks the progress of expectant mothers.
    - Offers advice on family planning.
    - Keeps records of patients’ progress.

13. Oncologist

  • - Diagnoses, treats and cares for patients with cancer.
    - Examines and discusses with patients on their symptoms and illnesses.
    - Carries out tests and procedures and studies its results.
    - Consults with other medical professionals.
    - Discusses treatment options with patients and their families, explaining the potential benefits, side effects and outcomes.
    - Determine if treatment is appropriate and what treatment is best for the patient.
    - Supervises an oncology medical unit and ensures that patients receive the best possible medical care.
    - Writes reports on the treatment of patients.
    - Participates in continuing medical education or research.
    - Supervises the training and practice of trainee medical students and medical officers.
    - Oncologists may specialise in medical oncology, gynaecological oncology, paediatric oncology, radiation oncology, surgical oncology, or haematology.

14. Paediatrician

  • - Diagnoses and provides treatment for babies, infants, children and adolescents.
    - Discusses patients’ medical and developmental problems with patients and/or their caregivers.
    - Collects, records, and maintains details of the patient’s information like clinical history, reports, and test outcomes.
    - Counsels and guides patients and their parents or guardians regarding diet, essential activities for treating complications, hygiene, and disease preclusion.
    - Examines patients and carries out tests to investigate causes of illnesses.
    - Uses test results to determine best treatment option.
    - Monitors outcomes of treatment and reassessing treatments as necessary.
    - Administers treatments, therapies, medications, vaccinations, and other medical care to treat or preclude illnesses, disorders, or injuries in infants and teens.
    - Analyzes patients on a regular basis to evaluate their physical and mental growth and development.
    - Carries out thorough research in order to examine anatomy and develops or tests medications, treatments, or procedures to preclude or control the infection and disease.
    - Participates in continuing medical education or research.
    - Supervises the training and practice of trainee medical students and medical officers.
    - Works with other health professionals to provide total health care for patients.

15. Medical Biotechnologist

  • - Develops new methods of treatment for diseases and conditions, and improved drug treatments.
    - Works with hospital and research staff on patient care and treatment.
    - Uses knowledge of molecular biology, chemistry, medicine, patient care as well as microbiology and genetic research to enhance the overall ability to care for individuals in a variety of settings.
    - Uses various data analysis programmes and computer programmes to assist with data collection and analysis.
    - Designs and carries out research projects.

16. Biomedical Scientist

  • - Tests for emergency blood transfusions and blood grouping as well as tests on samples from patients who may have overdosed, or may have leukaemia or are suspected of having a heart attack.
    - Tests human samples such as blood, tissue, urine, cerebrospinal and faecal material, for various chemical constituents.
    - Analyses cultures grown from samples and identifying blood groups.
    - Investigates medical conditions like cancer, diabetes, toxicological study, blood transfusion, anaemia, meningitis, hepatitis and AIDS.
    - Performs a key role in screening cervical smears, identifying viruses and diseases and monitoring the effects of medication and other treatments.
    - Communicates the results of tests to medical staff, who use the information to diagnose and treat the patient’s illness.
    - Works with computers, sophisticated automated equipment, microscopes and other hi-tech laboratory equipment.
    - Keeps accurate records and writes reports.
    - Develops new methods of investigation and keeps up-to-date with new developments.
    - May specialise in one of the following: medical microbiology (identification of micro-organisms causing disease, and their antibiotic treatment); clinical chemistry (the chemical analysis of body fluids); transfusion science (determination of donor unit compatibility and investigations into group antigens and antibodies); haematology (morphology and physiology of blood); histopathology (examination of tissue samples); cytology (analysis of cellular materials); immunology (understanding the immune system); and virology (identification of viruses).

17. Chiropractor

  • - Cares for patients with nerve, muscle and joint system disorders.
    - Takes detailed medical histories, including information on previous injuries, surgery, general health and lifestyle.
    - Conducts physical examinations of patients, focusing on the spine and posture, and noting the range of movement.
    - Takes blood samples, checks blood pressure and performs other tests like X-rays.
    - Discusses the method of care with the patient.
    - Performs adjustments of the joints of the spine and extremities using hands or specialist equipment; and soft tissue therapies like massage.
    - Advises patients on posture, ergonomics and function as appropriate.
    - Advises patients on other factors that affect spinal health, such as diet, exercise and lifestyle.
    - Establishes an appropriate treatment or management plan for the patient.
    - Keeps accurate and confidential clinical records.
    - Undertakes continuing professional development through case review, training, attending conferences and reading professional journals.

18. Psychiatrist

  • - Assesses and provides treatment for people with mental, emotional and behavioural disorders.
    - Treats patients with anxiety, severe mental disorders, alcoholism as well as diagnose mental retardation.
    - Discusses mental and physical problems with patients and their families.
    - Works with patients and their families to understand mental disorders and the patients’ likely responses to treatment.
    - Studies patients’ medical and psychiatric histories.
    - Carries out tests on patients, such as questionnaires, blood tests, or other diagnostic procedures.
    - Uses the results of tests and examinations to determine treatments.
    - Prescribes and administers medication, psychotherapy, shock therapy and other treatments.
    - Works with other team members to coordinate rehabilitation and recovery programmes.
    - Conducts research mental disorders and their treatments.
    - Gives evidence in court.
    - Undertakes continuing professional development through training, attending conferences and reading professional journals.

19. Biomedical Technician

  • - Maintains and operates complex mechanical and electronic medical equipment in hospitals such as machines for the procedure of dialysis, imaging machines and defibrillators.
    - Advises and consults with surgeons and other medical staff about their equipment requirements.
    - Teaches the hospital staff such as the nurses, how to handle and use the medical equipment.
    - Maintains detailed records of the condition of all the medical equipments and notes down the problems if any.
    - Installs, tests and calibrates medical equipment.
    - Performs quality assurance and electrical safety checks on equipment.
    - Talks with medical equipment suppliers, and negotiate with them .over the price of equipment
    - Collaborates with other staff to design and develop implants for use during operations – for example, artificial joints, or titanium plates to replace sections of bone in people who have had head injuries.
    - May specialise in diagnostic radiology equipment, radiotherapy equipment or medical laboratory equipment.

20. Forensic Scientist

  • - Carries out job function according to specialisation area:

    i. chemistry – examination of paint, chemicals, etc., including fire investigation and accident reconstruction which is connected to crimes against property, such as burglary and arson.
    ii. biology – DNA testing and the examination of minute contact traces, such as blood, hair, clothing fibres, etc. which is connected to crimes against people, such as murder, assault and rape.
    iii. drugs and toxicology – testing for restricted drugs, examining tissue specimens for poison detection, and the analysis of blood and urine samples for alcohol, for example in drink driving offences.

    - Applies scientific knowledge and skills to investigate crimes.
    - Visits crime scenes to find, collect and record evidence.
    - Analyses physical evidence such as fibres, glass, debris, firearms, bullets and marks made by tools or weapons.
    - Identifies drugs found on people, in body fluids or at crime scenes.
    - Analyses biological evidence such as hair, blood and other body fluids.
    - Writes reports on the results.
    - Gives evidence in court.
    - Investigates civil court cases such as fire or insurance claims.
    - Trains junior staff and police in handling and collecting evidence.

21. Occupational Therapist

  • - Assesses individual’s needs and lifestyle within their environment.
    - Plans, develops and directs therapy or treatment.
    - Advises on equipment to assist with daily activities as well as modifications at the home or workplace.
    - Develops a rehabilitation programme to help re-build skills and restore confidence.
    - Advises people lifestyle change needed to help them carry out their daily activities.
    - Teaches techniques in anxiety management, anger management and social interaction.
    - Works with other professionals, such as doctors, physiotherapists and social workers.
    - Develops programmes and advises patients’ families, caregivers and employers.
    - Keeps reports and reviews treatment progress.
    - Organises support and rehabilitation groups.

22. Clinical Psychologist

  • - Assesses the behavioural and psychological problems of patients.
    - Records and studies the medical, social and family histories of the patient.
    - Studies the relationship between the feelings, actions, beliefs, experiences and culture of people and how it shapes their experiences.
    - Administers tests to identify problems and measure the abilities and skills of the patient.
    - Discusses treatment options with patients or their family.
    - Recommends the most suitable therapy.
    - Develops treatment programmes.
    - Monitors the progress of the patient and records the outcome of the treatment.
    - Determines if patient requires further special testing or treatment.
    - Provides field evaluations, treatment, and case management in various settings.
    - Keep up-to-date with current knowledge and research.
    - Facilitates group therapy with social skills, anger-management or assertiveness training.
    - Appears in court to give recommendations or reports.

23. Medical Radiation Technologist

  • - Operates X-ray, radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment, computerized tomography (CT) scanners, mammography units and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners to produce radiographs or anatomic images of the human body for the diagnosis by radiologists of disease or injury.
    - Prepares equipment and provides information to patients about their examination process.
    - Provides care for the patient during the procedure.
    - Prepares materials such as tracers and administers them to patients.
    - Ensures that equipment is functioning properly by performing quality control checks.
    - Records and processes results of procedures.
    - Supervises and trains student radiographers.

24. Food Technologist

  • - Works in the food processing industry and helps to develop healthy and safe food products.
    - Develops better methods of preserving, processing, packaging, delivering and storing food.
    - Conducts trials on test samples.
    - Conducts research on harmful food additives and develops substitutes that are safe.
    - Develops new products or new quality control measures.
    - Supervises the food processing process.
    - Audits food outlet and processing plants to ensure that sanitation codes and safety regulations are met.
    - Checks the quality control and safety procedures in food processing plants.
    - Devises related policies for government agencies.
    - Carries out enforcement roles in environmental health departments.

25. Environmental Health Officer

  • - Carries out routine or unplanned visits and inspections to ensure households, companies or organisations comply with health and safety legislation.
    - Investigates complaints made by the public.
    - Takes photos, collects samples and conducts interviews as part of inspection.
    - Carries out inspection on food hygiene and standards.
    - Monitors and investigates outbreaks of diseases, radiation activity, and levels of noise, air and water pollution.
    - Issues licenses to registered premises (e.g. restaurants, hair salons, hotels, etc.) and ensure compliance to regulations.
    - Educates the public on environmental health and safety issues.
    - Takes legal action against breaches of environment-related laws and regulations and initiates legal proceedings.
    - Gives evidence in court.
    - Researches on environmental problems affecting public health.
    - Maintain records and writes reports.

26. Medical Laboratory Technician

  • - Works under the supervision of a medical laboratory scientist and/or a pathologist to assist with tests and other tasks in a diagnostic medical laboratory.
    - Conducts laboratory tests that help to detect, diagnose, and treat diseases.
    - Collects blood, tissue and urine samples, labels them, and conducts tests on them.
    - Prepares slides of blood, body fluids and body tissues for examination under a microscope.
    - Tests and matches blood samples and matches them for transfusion.
    - Sterilizes instruments.
    - Examines bacteria cultures.
    - Carries out sensitivity testing for antibiotics.
    - Operates and maintains laboratory testing equipment.
    - Keeps records of tests and generates reports for clients and doctors.

27. Dental Assistant

  • - Assists in administrative duties like scheduling appointments, retrieving patients' medical records, updating records, handling phone calls, receiving payments, and ordering supplies.
    - In the treatment room, prepares patients for the dentist's examination and performs chair-side duties which include:

    (i) laying out the patient's chart and preparing the equipment needed
    (ii) handing materials and tools to the dentist
    (iii) operate the oral suction hose that keeps the patient's mouth dry
    (iv) make impressions of patient's mouth or teeth
    (v) sterilize equipment
    (vi) mix compounds for filling teeth
    (vii) develops X-rays

28. Dental Technician

  • - Makes a wide range of appliance for the mouth as detailed by dentists orthodontists.
    - Uses molds and works with different materials like wax, stainless steel, porcelain as well as metals like gold to construct:

    (i) dentures
    (ii) crowns
    (iii) bridges
    (iv) retentions plates
    (v) mouth guards
    (vi) splints
    (vii) anti-snoring devices
    (viii) teeth whitening trays

    - Uses tools like drills, presses, lathes and high heat furnaces to carve and shape these prosthetic devices.